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Last Updated: April 19, 2017


Clem, Ralph S.: Here’s how to catch atrocities and human rights violations. (We’re looking at you, Burundi.) February 23, 2016

Dubberley, Sam; Griffin, Elizabeth; Mert Bal, Haluk: Making Secondary Trauma a Primary Issue: A Study of Eyewitness Media and Vicarious Trauma on the Digital FrontlineDecember 10, 2015

Edwards, Scott: Three Impediments to Technology for Truth. June 10, 2015.

Koettl,  Christoph  (January 2016): Citizen Media Research and Verification: An Analytical Framework for Human Rights Practitioners, Human Rights in the Digital Age: CGHR Practitioner Paper 1, Cambridge: University of Cambridge Centre of Governance and Human Rights.

Silverman, Craig (Ed.): Verification Handbook: A definitive guide to verifying digital content for emergency coverage.  January 2014.

WITNESS: Ethical Guidelines for using Eyewitness Videos in Human Rights Reporting and Advocacy.


Bair, Madeleine: Is it Authentic? When Citizens and Soldiers Document War.  November 20, 2012.

BBC: Social media verification: UGC Hub

Cole, Alison: Technology for Truth: The Next Generation of Evidence. March 18, 2015

Cole, Alison: Pictures of Atrocity: Turning Video Footage into Evidence of War Crimes.  March 7, 2013

DatNav: How to navigate digital data for human rights research. The Engine Room, 2016

Hodson, Hal: Multi-shot video can identify civil rights abusers. New Scientist, June 28, 2013.

Hudson, John: New York Times Issues Correction on Syrian Rebel Story. Foreign Policy, September 6, 2013.

Human Rights Center, University of California, Berkely: Digital fingerprints: Using electronic evidence to advance prosecutions at the International Criminal Court. February 2014.

Human Rights Center, University of California, Berkely: Beyond Reasonable Doubt: Using scientific evidence to advance prosecutions at the International Criminal Court. 23-24 October 2012. Workshop Report.

Koettl, Christoph: Can Video Document Possible War Crimes In Syria? January 8, 2013.

Koettl, Christoph: ‘The YouTube War’: Citizen Videos Revolutionize Human Rights Monitoring in Syria. February 18, 2014.

Lennon, Helen: A Witness to Atrocity: Film as Evidence in International War Crimes TribunalsIn: Toby Haggith and Johanne Newmann (ed): Holocaust and the Moving Image: Representations in Film and Television since 1933. London 2005, 65ff.

Nunez, Bryan: Is This For Real? How InformaCam Improves Verification of Mobile Media Files.  January 15, 2013

Pillay, Sukanya: Video as Evidence. In: Sam Gregory, Gillian Caldwell, Ronit Avni; Thomas Harding (eds):Video for Change. A Guide for Advocacy and Activism. London, 2005.

Truth in the age of social media. Nieman Reports, Vol 66, No. 2 (Summer 2012).

WITNESS: Cameras Everywhere: Current Challenges and Opportunities at the Intersection of Human Rights, Video, And Technology. 2011

O’Neill, Kathleen; Sentilles, Della; Brinks, Daniel M.: New Wine In Old Wineskins? New Problems in the use of electronic evidence in Human Rights Investigations and prosecutions

The Observers’ Guide to Verifying Photos and Videos in Social Media Networks

Wardle, Claire (ed.): Social Newsgathering:  A Collection of Storyful Blog Posts 

Case Studies

Cozzens, Richard: Verifying Citizen Video: A Case Study of Destruction from Aleppo. January 7, 2014.

McMahon, Felim: Syria: Turning night into day: analysis of where air strikes blamed on Israel hit. May 5, 2013.

Kivimäki, Veli-Pekka: Russian State Television Shares Fake Images of MH17 Being Attacked. Bellinbcat, November 14, 2014.

Sheridan, Gavin: Storyful tips and tools: Locating videos on a map. September 25, 2012.

Unique Footage Of A Thermobaric Bomb Dropped Over Syria. Brown Moses Blog, January 10, 2013.

The Process Of Video Verification – Rabaa, Egypt, August 14th 2013. Brown Moses Blog, August 15, 2013.

Ethics, Risks, Visual Privacy, Professional Standards

ACLU: Know Your Rights: Photographers. July 2014

Bair, Madeleine: Consent, Privacy, and A Video of Sexual Assault.  June 25, 2014.

Bair, Madeleine: Navigating the Ethics of Citizen Video: The Case of a Sexual Assault in Egypt. Arab Media & Society (Issue 19, Fall 2014)

Gregory, Sam: Visual Anonymity and YouTube’s New Blurring Tool.  July 18, 2012.

International Committee of the Red Cross: Professional standards for protection work carriedout by humanitarian and human rights actors in armed conflict and other situations of violence. February 2013. (Esp. Chapter6)

Vicarious Trauma

Dart Center for Journalism and Trauma: Tip Sheet: Working with Traumatic Imagery

Dubberley, Sam and Grant, Michele: Journalism and Vicarious Trauma: A Guide for Journalists, Editors and News Organisations. April 2017

Rees, Gavin: Tips for Coping With Traumatic Imagery

Rees, Gavin: Developing Your Own Standard Operating Procedure for Handling Traumatic Imagery. April 2017

Feature photo: Christoph Koettl